SharePoint 2010 does not support FIPS compliant algorithms. Because of this, you will need to change the Local Security Policy; as well as change some registry settings.
Local Security Policy changes…
Go to Start > Control Panel > Administrative tools > Local Security Policy
Under the “Local Policies” heading, select “Security Options” and look for the entry, “System cryptography: Use FIPS compliant algorithms for encryption, hashing, and signing.”
If entry this is enabled, disable it.
Change all of the following values to “0”
After making these changes, you should be able to install and configure SharePoint 2010 successfully.